Academic freedom is employed as a general term for the freedom that especially universities, their staff and students enjoy to seek for and disseminate knowledge without interference from others. This is important for research, teaching and communication.
Academic freedom entails considerable institutional autonomy for the individual research institution and individual academic freedom for the individual academic staff member and student. Academic freedom is closely associated with freedom of thought and freedom of expression, and is recognised as a fundamental right in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, cf. section 13:
“The arts and sciences research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.”
The practical extent of academic freedom depends in particular on a mixture of formal and informal rules, funding, management practices and institutional frameworks, cf. the report on research and freedom of expression at the Danish universities by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, (Forskningspolitisk årsmøde 2007), page 6, and NOU 2006:19, page 13.
What is academic freedom?
At international level, reference is often made to the following definition of ”academic freedom”:
”Academic freedom may be defined as the freedom to conduct research, teach, speak, and publish, subject to the norms and standards of scholarly inquiry, without interference or penalty, wherever the search for truth and understanding may lead”.
(Source: Global Colloquium of University Presidents (2005) reproduced in accordance with NOU 2006:19 on academic freedom, p. 12)
In the UK, Academics for Academic Freedom have complied the following statement on academic freedom:
“‘We, the undersigned, believe the following two principles to be the foundation of academic freedom:
(1) that academics, both inside and outside the classroom, have unrestricted liberty to question and test received wisdom and to put forward controversial and unpopular opinions, whether or not these are deemed offensive, and
(2) that academic institutions have no right to curb the exercise of this freedom by members of their staff, or to use it as grounds for disciplinary action or dismissal.”
A detailed account of the history, reasons for and restrictions on freedom of research is available in the Norwegian report on academic freedom: NOU 2006:19 om akademisk frihet.
Individual academic freedom
The individual academic freedom is important for research, teaching and communication:
See article on scientific freedom.
According to the Danish University Act, universities must provide “research-based education at the highest international level within their disciplines”. Although provisions have been laid down for the regulation of individual programmes and disciplines, teachers at universities and other research institutions have often enjoyed considerable academic and pedagogical freedom to organise their teaching (“free choice of methods”).
For the importance of academic freedom in relation to teaching, see for example NOU 2006:19, p.15. See also the report to the Public Accounts Committee on teaching at the universities by the Danish National Audit Office: ”Beretning til Statsrevisorerne om undervisningen på universiteterne” (Aug. 2012).
Knowledge dissemination, including participation in public debate
As society’s central repository of culture and knowledge, the university must exchange knowledge and competencies with the surrounding society and encourage its staff to take part in public debate, cf. section 2(3) no. 3 of the Danish University Act. In this context researchers have traditionally enjoyed extensive freedom of expression, see the article Researchers’ dissemination and freedom of expression.
Academic freedom requires a certain institutional autonomy. In Denmark this is particularly discussed in relation to Scientific freedom.
- Magna charta universitatum
- Academic Freedom, University Autonomy and Social Responsibility (International Association of Universities (IAU) Policy Statement, April 1998)
- Academics for Academic Freedom (AFAF, UK)
- AAUP Journal of Academic Freedom